High-risk and non-cooperative jurisdictions

FATF Public Statement 22 February 2013

Paris, 22 February 2013 - The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is the global standard setting body for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). In order to protect the international financial system from money laundering and financing of terrorism (ML/FT) risks and to encourage greater compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identified jurisdictions that have strategic deficiencies and works with them to address those deficiencies that pose a risk to the international financial system.

Jurisdictions subject to a FATF call on its members and other jurisdictions to apply counter-measures to protect the international financial system from the on-going and substantial money laundering and terrorist financing (ML/TF) risks emanating from the jurisdictions.

Iran
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)

Jurisdictions with strategic AML/CFT deficiencies that have not made sufficient progress in addressing the deficiencies or have not committed to an action plan developed with the FATF to address the deficiencies. The FATF calls on its members to consider the risks arising from the deficiencies associated with each jurisdiction, as described below.

Ecuador
Ethiopia
Indonesia
Kenya
Myanmar
Nigeria
Pakistan
São Tomé and Príncipe
Syria
Tanzania
Turkey
Vietnam
Yemen

Bolivia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand are now identified in the FATF document, "Improving Global AML/CFT Compliance: On-going Process" due to their progress in largely addressing their action plans agreed upon with the FATF. Cuba has now provided the FATF a high-level political commitment to implement an action plan to address its AML/CFT deficiencies; consequently, Cuba is also moved to this document. 

Iran

The FATF remains particularly and exceptionally concerned about Iran’s failure to address the risk of terrorist financing and the serious threat this poses to the integrity of the international financial system, despite Iran’s previous engagement with the FATF and recent submission of information.

The FATF reaffirms its call on members and urges all jurisdictions to advise their financial institutions to give special attention to business relationships and transactions with Iran, including Iranian companies and financial institutions. In addition to enhanced scrutiny, the FATF reaffirms its 25 February 2009 call on its members and urges all jurisdictions to apply effective counter-measures to protect their financial sectors from money laundering and financing of terrorism (ML/FT) risks emanating from Iran. FATF continues to urge jurisdictions to protect against correspondent relationships being used to bypass or evade counter-measures and risk mitigation practices and to take into account ML/FT risks when considering requests by Iranian financial institutions to open branches and subsidiaries in their jurisdiction. Due to the continuing terrorist financing threat emanating from Iran, jurisdictions should consider the steps already taken and possible additional safeguards or strengthen existing ones.

The FATF urges Iran to immediately and meaningfully address its AML/CFT deficiencies, in particular by criminalising terrorist financing and effectively implementing suspicious transaction reporting (STR) requirements. If Iran fails to take concrete steps to continue to improve its CFT regime, the FATF will consider calling on its members and urging all jurisdictions to strengthen counter-measures in June 2013.

Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)

Since October 2012, DPRK has reached out to the APG regarding joining that body and has engaged directly with the FATF. The FATF urges the DPRK to enhance its engagement with these bodies to agree with the FATF on an action plan to address its AML/CFT deficiencies.

The FATF remains concerned by the DPRK’s failure to address the significant deficiencies in its anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) regime and the serious threat this poses to the integrity of the international financial system. The FATF urges the DPRK to immediately and meaningfully address its AML/CFT deficiencies.

The FATF reaffirms its 25 February 2011 call on its members and urges all jurisdictions to advise their financial institutions to give special attention to business relationships and transactions with the DPRK, including DPRK companies and financial institutions. In addition to enhanced scrutiny, the FATF further calls on its members and urges all jurisdictions to apply effective counter-measures to protect their financial sectors from money laundering and financing of terrorism (ML/FT) risks emanating from the DPRK. Jurisdictions should also protect against correspondent relationships being used to bypass or evade counter-measures and risk mitigation practices, and take into account ML/FT risks when considering requests by DPRK financial institutions to open branches and subsidiaries in their jurisdiction.

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Ecuador

Ecuador has taken steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime, including by tabling CFT legislation in Parliament. Despite Ecuador’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and GAFISUD to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Ecuador has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan within the established timelines, and certain strategic deficiencies remain. Ecuador should continue to work with the FATF and GAFISUD on implementing its action plan to address these deficiencies, including by: (1) ensuring adequate criminalisation of terrorist financing; (2) establishing and implementing adequate procedures to identify and freeze terrorist assets; (3) implementing adequate procedures for the confiscation of funds related to money laundering; and (4) continuing to enhance co-ordination of financial sector supervision. The FATF encourages Ecuador to address its remaining deficiencies, including by enacting CFT legislation, and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Ethiopia

Ethiopia has taken steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime, including by adopting a new AML/CFT law on 4 January 2013. The FATF has not yet assessed this law due to its very recent nature, and therefore the FATF has not yet determined the extent to which it addresses any of the following issues: (1) adequately criminalising money laundering and terrorist financing; (2) establishing and implementing an adequate legal framework and procedures to identify and freeze terrorist assets; (3) ensuring a fully operational and effectively functioning Financial Intelligence Unit; and (4) implementing effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions in order to deal with natural or legal persons that do not comply with the national AML/CFT requirements. Despite Ethiopia’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Ethiopia has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan within the agreed timelines, and certain strategic AML/CFT deficiencies may remain. The FATF encourages Ethiopia to address its remaining deficiencies and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Indonesia

Indonesia has taken significant steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime, including by enacting CFT legislation to criminalise terrorist financing largely consistent with the FATF Standards. The FATF has not yet assessed this law due to its very recent nature. Further, the FATF has yet to determine the extent to which Indonesia has established and implemented adequate procedures to identify and freeze terrorist assets. The FATF encourages Indonesia to address these remaining issues, in compliance with FATF standards.

Kenya

Kenya has taken significant steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime, including the enactment of the Proceeds of Crime and Anti-Money Laundering (Amendment) Act - which addresses deficiencies in the criminalisation of money laundering and freezing/seizing/confiscation of assets - and the issuance of revised AML Guidelines by the Central Bank. However, despite Kenya’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and ESAAMLG to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Kenya has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan within the agreed timelines, and certain strategic AML/CFT deficiencies remain. Kenya should continue to work on implementing its action plan to address these deficiencies, including by: (1) adequately criminalising terrorist financing; (2) ensuring a fully operational and effectively functioning Financial Intelligence Unit; (3) establishing and implementing an adequate legal framework for the identification and freezing of terrorist assets; (4) implementing effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions in order to deal with natural or legal persons that do not comply with the national AML/CFT requirements; (5) implementing an adequate and effective AML/CFT supervisory programme for all financial sectors; and (6) further improving and broadening customer due diligence measures. The FATF encourages Kenya to address its remaining deficiencies and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Myanmar

Myanmar has taken steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime. However, despite Myanmar’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and APG to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Myanmar has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan, and certain strategic AML/CFT deficiencies remain. Myanmar should continue to work on implementing its action plan to address these deficiencies, including by: (1) adequately criminalising terrorist financing; (2) establishing and implementing adequate procedures to identify and freeze terrorist assets; (3) further strengthening the extradition framework in relation to terrorist financing; (4) ensuring a fully operational and effectively functioning Financial Intelligence Unit; (5) enhancing financial transparency; and (6) strengthening customer due diligence measures. The FATF encourages Myanmar to address the remaining deficiencies and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Nigeria

Nigeria has taken significant steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime, including by enacting the Money Laundering (Prohibition) (Amendment) Act and, on 21 February 2013, the Terrorism (Prevention) (Amendment) Act, 2013. The FATF has not yet assessed the legislation, due to the very recent nature of its enactment. Therefore, the FATF has yet to determine whether the legislation adequately criminalises terrorist financing and money laundering in line with international standards. The FATF encourages Nigeria to address these remaining issues and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Pakistan

Pakistan has taken steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime, including by issuing an SRO to increase the maximum monetary sanction for non-compliance with S/RES/1267. However, despite Pakistan’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and APG to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Pakistan has not yet made sufficient progress in fully implementing its action plan, and certain key CFT deficiencies remain. Specifically, Pakistan needs to amend its Anti-Terrorism Act to ensure that it meets the FATF standards regarding the terrorist financing offence and the ability to identify and freeze terrorist assets. The FATF encourages Pakistan to address the remaining deficiencies and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

São Tomé and Príncipe

São Tomé and Príncipe has provided for the enforcement of its AML/CFT law through bringing into force the new Penal Code. However, despite São Tomé and Príncipe’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and GIABA to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, São Tomé and Príncipe has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan, and certain strategic deficiencies remain. São Tomé and Príncipe should continue to work on implementing its action plan to address these deficiencies, including by: (1) adequately criminalising money laundering and terrorist financing; (2) establishing a fully operational and effectively functioning Financial Intelligence Unit; (3) ensuring that financial institutions and DNFBPs are subject to adequate AML/CFT regulation and supervision; and (4) implementing effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions in order to deal with natural or legal persons that do not comply with the national AML/CFT requirements. The FATF encourages São Tomé and Príncipe to address its remaining deficiencies and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Syria

Despite Syria’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and MENAFATF to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Syria has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan, and certain strategic AML/CFT deficiencies remain. Syria should continue to work on implementing its action plan to address these deficiencies, including by: (1) providing sufficient legal basis for implementing the obligations under S/RES/1373 and implementing adequate procedures for identifying and freezing terrorist assets; and (2) ensuring that appropriate laws and procedures are in place to provide mutual legal assistance. The FATF encourages Syria to address its remaining deficiencies and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Tanzania

Tanzania has taken significant steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime, including by ratifying the Terrorist Financing Convention. However, despite Tanzania’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and ESAAMLG to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Tanzania has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan within the agreed timelines, and certain strategic CFT deficiencies remain regarding the establishment and implementation of adequate procedures to identify and freeze terrorist assets. The FATF encourages Tanzania to address this remaining deficiency and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Turkey

Turkey has taken significant steps towards improving its CFT regime, including by enacting a new law that addresses many of the shortcomings identified in Turkey’s terrorist financing offence and creates the legal basis for the freezing of terrorist assets.  The FATF welcomes this significant step made by Turkey, which improves the country’s compliance with the international standards.  As a consequence, the FATF has decided not to suspend Turkey’s membership.  In spite of this positive step, there still remain a number of on-going shortcomings in the Turkish counter-terrorist financing regime.  Turkey must address these shortcomings in order to reach a satisfactory level of compliance with the FATF standards.  Turkey has committed to addressing these deficiencies and will submit, prior to the next FATF meeting in June 2013, a report on how these deficiencies are being addressed.

Vietnam

Vietnam has taken steps towards improving its AML/CFT regime. However, despite Vietnam’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and APG to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Vietnam has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan, and certain strategic AML/CFT deficiencies remain. Vietnam should continue to work with the FATF and APG on implementing its action plan to address these deficiencies, including by: (1) addressing the remaining issues regarding adequate criminalisation of terrorist financing; (2) establishing and implementing adequate procedures to identify and freeze terrorist assets; (3) making legal persons subject to criminal liability in line with FATF Standards and (4) strengthening international co-operation. The FATF urges Vietnam to address its remaining deficiencies and continue the process of implementing its action plan.

Yemen

Despite Yemen’s high-level political commitment to work with the FATF and MENAFATF to address its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies, Yemen has not made sufficient progress in implementing its action plan and certain strategic AML/CFT deficiencies remain. Yemen should continue to work on implementing its action plan to address these deficiencies, including by: (1) adequately criminalising money laundering and terrorist financing; (2) establishing and implementing adequate procedures to identify and freeze terrorist assets; (3) developing the monitoring and supervisory capacity of the financial sector supervisory authorities and the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) to ensure compliance by financial institutions with their suspicious transaction reporting obligations, especially in relation to the financing of terrorism; and (4) ensuring a fully operational and effectively functioning FIU. The FATF encourages Yemen to address its remaining deficiencies and continue the process of implementing its action plan.